Friday, March 20, 2020

Biomarkers For COVID 19

What is Corona Virus/COVID 19?

COVID–19 is a new disease that has been detected in the human body, and no previous case of COVID–19 pneumonia has been discovered. The chief clinical symptoms of those infected with coronavirus are coldness, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

The signs and symptoms of the person infected are:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
There are certain emergency signs such as:
  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • New confusion or inability to arouse
  • Bluish lips or face
If you develop symptoms, seek medical advice.
A person may develop the disease if:
1)      They have been in close contact with a person known to have COVID-19 or
2)      Live in or have recently traveled from an area with the on-going spread of COVID-19.
3)      Call ahead before you go to a doctor’s office or emergency room.
A person who has completed quarantine or has been released from isolation does not pose a risk of infection to other people.
The clinical severity of any infectious diseases is typically measured in terms of:
1) Its infection fatality risk (IFR),
2) Symptomatic case fatality risk (sCFR) and
3) Hospitalization fatality risk (HFR).
The FDA is said to have begun working directly with partners and innovators to foster the development of medical countermeasures against COVID-19, quickly after the emergence of the virus and they are continuing to provide regulatory flexibility, advice, guidance, and technical assistance.

Biomarkers for COVID 19

Two Parameters that may serve as a potential biomarker for COVID-19 are Various blood parameters and CRP.

The significant differences in the ratios between various blood parameters and CRP between the two groups are interesting findings in a study. It has been seen that CRP may not or only slightly increase in viral infection without bacterial infection. This increase indirectly reflects the severity of the infection. At present, it is generally accepted that CRP or combined CRP can be used to judge the inflammatory activity.

In this study, we found that the ratio between various blood parameters and CRP was significantly increased in patients who had indirect contact with the disease in the epidemic area, suggesting that the change in the reactivity of CRP in COVID–19 infection is greater than the response of various blood parameters.

In addition, considering that COVID–19 in the secondary the epidemic area may occur after the primary epidemic in the main epidemic area, its toxicity and pathogenicity may be weakened. CRP can be used as a predictive factor prior to changes in leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and other inflammatory-related blood parameters to comprehensively evaluate the occurrence and development of COVID–19 infection.

CVD (Cardiovascular Diseases) and COVID 19

The virus ‘Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)’ (the scientific name of the virus infects the host cells through ACE2 receptors, resulting in coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related pneumonia, it also causes acute myocardial injury and chronic damage to the circulatory system. Hence, particular attention should tend to cardiovascular protection during treatment for COVID-19.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) may be a membrane-bound aminopeptidase that features a vital role within the cardiovascular and immune systems. ACE2 is involved in heart function and therefore the development of hypertension and DM. In addition, ACE2 has been identified as a functional receptor for coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 infection is triggered by binding of the spike protein of the virus to ACE2, which is very expressed within the heart and lungs.
SARS-CoV-2 mainly invades alveolar epithelial cells, leading to respiratory symptoms. These symptoms are more severe in patients with CVD, which could be related to increased secretion of ACE2 in these patients compared with healthy individuals. ACE2 levels are often increased by the utilization of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors.

Given that ACE2 may be a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2, the security and potential effects of anti-hypertension therapy with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers in patients with COVID-19 should be carefully considered.
The COVID-19 virus, although not as lethal as SARS, has proved far more pervasive. It took but two months from the invention of the primary infection for the number of confirmed cases to pass the entire that SARS reached over several months. And in three months, COVID-19 has killed quite five times as many of us as SARS.


  •       Wash your hands often with soap and water for a minimum of 20 seconds
  • ·  If soap and water aren't readily available, use a hand sanitizer that contains a minimum of 60% alcohol.
  • ·  Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • ·  Avoid close contact with folks that are sick.
  • ·  Put distance between yourself and people if COVID-19 is spreading in your community.
  • ·  Stay home if you're sick, except to urge medical aid
  • ·  Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue once you cough or sneeze or use the within of your elbow.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Obesity and Biomarkers

Cardiovascular diseases

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in all areas of the world.  Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that encompass the heart or blood vessels systems. CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack), stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, abnormal heart rhythms, congenital heart disease, etc.
The original mechanism of the diseases varies significantly. Some diseases involve atherosclerosis such as coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease that may have arisen due to high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, etc. 13% of CVD deaths are due to high blood pressure. 90% of CVD is estimated to be preventable.


Obesity is a complex a disease that involves the deposition of an excessive amount of body fat in adipose tissues and other tissue spaces and cells. It increases the risk of other diseases and health problems in a person which includes heart diseases, diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain cancers.
Dietary changes increased physical activity, and behavior changes can play a major role in overcoming the problem.  Also, there are genetic, behavioral, metabolic and hormonal influences on body weight, obesity occurs when you take in more calories than you burn during your daily activities. Your body stores these excess calories as fat.

Risk factors

Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and contributing factors: including Family inheritance and influences, Lifestyle choices, Certain diseases and medications (such as Prader-Willi syndrome, Cushing syndrome and other conditions and some medications can lead to weight gain), Social and economic issues, Age (can occur at any age), Other factors (such as Lack of sleep, Stress, and Microbiome (your gut bacteria).
People with obesity are more likely to develop several potentially serious health problems, including Heart disease and strokes, Type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, Digestive problems, Sleep apnea, etc.

The Role of Biomarkers

The early diagnosis of the disease can be done by using ‘Automated CT Scan biomarkers’ that can predict cardiovascular events better than current practices used for detection.
Artificial intelligence, when used to analyze CT scans, can produce a more accurate risk assessment for major cardiovascular events than current, standard methods such as the Framingham risk score (FRS) and body-mass index (BMI) as demonstrated by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and the University of Wisconsin
It was also observed by the researchers that BMI is a poor predictor of cardiovascular events, and all five automated CT-based measures clearly outperformed BMI for adverse event prediction.
The study compared the capability of automated CT-based body composition biomarkers derived from image-processing algorithms to forecast major cardiovascular events.
"We found that automated measures provided more accurate risk assessments than established clinical biomarkers," said Ronald M. Summers, M.D., Ph.D., of the NIH Clinical Centre and senior author of the study.
"This demonstrates the potential of an approach that uses AI to tap into the biometric data embedded in all such scans performed for a wide range of other indications and derive information that can help people better understand their overall health and risks of serious adverse events."
According to a recent study, five genes can be used as biomarkers and treatment targets for obesity, according to a study performed by a group of researchers from Saudi Arabia set out to figure out the role of SSGs (salt sensitivity genes) in the development of obesity.
The five genes are ENPEP, WNK1, CYP3A5, SLC24A3, and CTSA – that highly co-expressed with obesity-related genes and, due to this reason they can be used as potential biomarkers or treatment targets for obesity.
Hence, Biomarkers provide better disease diagnosis methods than standard diagnosis methods utilized and new biomarkers are discovered, developed and tested throughout for better disease diagnosis.

Friday, February 28, 2020

How nucleus cleans itself

The Nucleus

The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the genetic material of a eukaryotic organism (as prokaryotes lack a well-defined nucleus). It serves as the ‘Brain’ of the cell by maintaining the integrity of the cell by facilitating transcription and replication processes. It is a crucial part of a cell and thus an integral part of the study of cell biology.

While textbooks often illustrate the nucleus as a static structure suspended in the cell’s milieu, the nucleus is highly responsive to external and cell internal forces. The nucleus is responsive to the environment outside it, and this affects processes that occur within it. It happens due to the presence of structures such as KASH and SUN domain proteins, within the nuclear envelope that helps to transduce mechanical signals.

Likewise, components of the nucleus are also dynamic, but not more than the nuclear envelope itself. During mitosis, the nuclear envelope disassembles to various degrees and reassembles (Vietri et al.) depending on cell type. The notion that the nucleus, once reformed, is merely a sack of randomly organized DNA has long been dispelled.

How nucleus cleans itself

The first transcription phase is inescapable and it produces a large number of surplus RNAs, however, theses RNAs do not accumulate, because they are degraded shortly after their production. This prevents the deleterious accumulation of non-functional transcripts that would otherwise be detrimental to cell health.

Most of the RNA decay is achieved by the nuclear RNA exosome complex, an RNA 3'-5' exonuclease, which is called up to RNA by specific adapters, like the so-called NEXT complex and the PAXT (poly (A) tail exosome targeting) connection.

The decay systems co-operate sometimes and help cells to degrade NEXT substrates, even in the potentially hazardous situation. In this case, NEXT targets (which are normally produced without a poly(A) tail and swiftly removed) acquire poly(A) tails -- a hallmark of PAXT targets -- which subject them to PAX -mediated decay. These systems provide a two-layered targeting mechanism for the efficient nuclear sorting of the human transcriptome.

Friday, February 21, 2020



A Biomarker is a diagnostic tool that is used for the detection of various medical states in a patient. It can be any measurement that reflects an interaction between a biological system and a potential hazard that can be chemical, physical, or biological. The response produced may be functional and physiological, biochemical at the cellular level, or molecular interaction.

Biomarkers are considered to be surrogate endpoints when they are used as outcomes in clinical trials, that is, they act as substitutes for clinically meaningful endpoints. Biomarkers have also been approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation for use as surrogate endpoints in the treatment development process.

Biomarkers can provide researchers interim evidence about the safety and efficacy of treatments while more definitive clinical data is collected. In some cases, it may be preferable to use established biomarkers as surrogate endpoints to reduce the risk of harm to subjects.

Biomarkers play a critical role in improving the drug development process within the larger biomedical research enterprise. Understanding the connections between measurable biological processes and clinical outcomes can lead to the expansion of our arsenal for treatments for diseases, and for deepening our knowledge of normal and healthy physiology.

Types of Biomarkers

Biomarkers are classified into various categories such as characteristics, their applications, genetics, and molecular biology methods, though they can be dual in nature or roles and befitting in diverse classifications. As per characteristics, they can be of two basic types: (1) imaging biomarkers and (2) non-imaging biomarkers.

Imaging Biomarkers

Imaging biomarkers are applied in identifying or visualizing a lesion or a disease as in computed tomography, positron emission tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging.

Non- Imaging Biomarkers

Non-imaging biomarkers are biochemical having biophysical properties thus they can be measured in biological samples. They include cellular structures or biophysical components, such as nucleic acid-based biomarkers including gene mutations or polymorphisms and quantitative gene expression analysis, peptides, proteins, lipids metabolites, and other small molecules.

On the Basis of Methodology

According to genetics and molecular biology methods, biomarkers can be categorized into three types, i.e.,
(1) Type 0, (2) Type 1, and (3) Type 2.

Type 0 are natural history biomarker that helps in measuring the natural history of a disease and correlate over time with known clinical indicators.

Type 1 are drug activity biomarkers that indicate the effect of drug intervention.

Type 2 are the surrogate markers and serve as a substitute for a clinical outcome of a disease. Type 2 also helps to predict the effect of a therapeutic intervention.


Some examples of biomarkers are Oxidative Stress, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Isoprostanes, Enzymatic Anti-oxidants, Blood Urates, Alpha-Amylase, Chromogranin A (CgA), MicroRNAs (miRNAs), Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), Acute Phase Proteins, etc.

Tuesday, December 17, 2019


About Conference

Join us for 2nd International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research
Update your skills, Meet your academic heroes, Engage in high-level debates and refine your ideas enhance your knowledge base, and broaden your horizons, Visit a new place and have fun, - all in one place!
Date: June 15-16, 2020
Venue: Dubai, UAE
If you are interested to be a part of this event as a speaker or delegate!
Call: 1-201-380-5561 (Extension No- 7007)
WhatsApp: +44 7723584505

Biomarkers Conference 2020 provides a vital forum for the exchange of ideas and innovative concepts in all areas related to biomarkers. Biomarkers 2020 particularly welcomes clinical trials and statistical studies as well as methodologically sound literature reviews. The conference program is based on a wide range of challenges and issues in the field of biomarkers that will be addressed through plenary speakers, keynote speakers, eminent professors, and medical professionals, along with poster sessions.
We are looking forward to an inspiring two-day research event, business meeting, trade show and exhibition in Dubai, UAE.

Why to Attend Biomarkers Conference 2020?

  • Categorizing innovations based on research and practice to optimize clinical research and the development of biomarkers.
  • To promote opportunities to network, collaborate and exchange ideas with world-renowned Biomarkers research leaders.
  • Recognizing opportunities for evidence-based training to improve research and development of Biomarkers.
  • To discuss and debate the challenges and prospects in the new era of optimizing reforms in clinical research and development.
  • Dispute discrepancies and sustainable development goals in improving the research and development of Biomarkers.

Target Audience of Biomarkers Conference 2020

  • Clinical researchers
  • Cancer researchers
  • Radiologists
  • Oncologists
  • Cardiologists
  • Neurologists
  • Geneticists
  • Pathologists
  • Molecular biologists
  • Immunologists
  • Pharmacologists
  • Young researchers
  • Students
  • Biomarker associations
  • Biomedical industrials
  • Medical devices specialists
  • Business entrepreneurs
  • Diagnostic experts

Special Issues

  •  All accepted abstracts will be published in respective Supporting International Journals.
  •  Abstracts will be provided with Digital Object Identifier by Cross Ref.